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文言固定句式综合检测(附答案)

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文言固定句式综合检测            
一、表示疑问
1、何所……?
表疑问的固定结构。是“所……者为何”的倒装和压缩。可译为“所……的(人、事、物)是什么”。VMd教学E网

  • 问女何所思,问女何所忆。VMd教学E网

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  • 卖炭得来钱何所营?(白居易《卖炭翁》)VMd教学E网

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2、奈何……?若何……?如何……?
可译为:“……怎么办?”
例: 取吾璧,不予我城,奈何?
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还可译为:“为什么……?”
例:非国家之利也,若何从之?(《左传o襄公二十六年》)
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例:奈何取之尽锱铢,用之如泥沙?
3、何如   同义结构还有“何若”、“奚如”、“胡如”、“奚若”等。
(1)代词性固定结构。常用于询问动作行为的方式或事物的性状。可译为“怎么样”。
  例:樊哙曰:“今日之事何如?”
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(2)表示比较的固定结构。可译为“比……怎么样”。
例:王以为何如其父?
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4、如……何?奈……何?可译为:“拿……怎么样呢?”“对……怎么样”、“把……怎么样”
例: 以残年之力,曾不能毁山之一毛,其如土石何?
例:如太行、王屋何?(《愚公移山》)
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例:三老不来还,奈之何?(《西门豹治邺》)
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5. "何(奚)以……为"、"何(奚、曷)……为" 
其中“何”是疑问代词,可用“安”、“奚”、“曷”等词来代替;“以”是动词,“用”的意思;“为”是表示疑问的语气词。前者可译为“为什么(要)……呢”、“怎么……呢”,后者可译为“哪里用得着……呢”、“要……干什么呢”。
例:"如今人方为刀俎,我为鱼肉,何辞为?
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例:项王笑曰:"天之亡我,我何渡为?"(《史记•项羽本纪》)
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例:奚以之九万里而南为?(庄子《逍遥游》)
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例: 是社稷之臣也,何以伐为?
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6、孰与  ;与……孰     译为“跟……比较,哪一个(谁)……”
例:我孰与城北徐公美?
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例:公之视廉将军孰与秦王?——
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二、表示反问  
1、何……之有?
可译为:“有什么……呢?” 例: 宋何罪之有?
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2、如之何……? 可译为:“怎么能……呢?”
例:君子于役,如之何勿思?
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3、不亦……乎? 可译为:“不是……吗?”不也是……吗?”
例:求剑若此,不亦惑乎?
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例:学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而愠,不亦君子乎?”
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4 "不为……乎"连用,表反问,相当于现代汉语的"不算是……吗?"
例:此不为远者小而近者大乎?
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5、岂(其)……哉(乎、耶)?可译为: “难道……吗?”
例:夫祸患常积于忽微,而智勇多困于所溺,岂独伶人也哉?《伶官传序》
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例:岂得之难而失之易欤?《伶官传序》
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6、安……哉(乎)?可译为:“怎么……呢?“哪里……呢?”
例: 然刘豫州新败之后,安能抗此难乎?(《赤壁之战》)
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例: 燕雀安知鸿鹄之志哉?
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7、……非……欤?可译为:“……不是……吗?”
例: 子非三闾大夫欤?(《屈原列传》)
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 8、宁……耶?可译为:“哪里……呢?”
例:宁知此为归骨所耶?
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9、顾……哉?可译为:“难道……吗?”
例:人之立志,顾不如蜀鄙之僧哉?...
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10、独……哉(耶)?可译为:“难道……吗?”
例: 独不怜公子之姊耶?
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例: 相如虽驽,独畏廉将军哉?
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11. “其……乎(也、耶)”,表揣测、希望、反问等语气。表揣测:相当于现代汉语的"大概(恐怕)……吧!; 表希望“还是……吧!”;表反问:“难道……吗?”
例: 圣人之所以为圣,愚人之所以为愚,其皆出于此乎?(韩愈《师说》)
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例:其真无马邪?其真不知马也。
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例:尽吾志也,而不能至者,可以无悔矣,其孰能讥之乎?
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例:与尔三矢,尔其无忘乃父之志!
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12. "庸……乎"连用, 相当于现代汉语的"哪里(怎么)……呢?"
例: 吾师道也,夫庸之其年之先后生于吾乎?(韩愈《师说》)
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三、表示感叹
1、何其……也!可译为:“怎么那么……啊!”“多么……啊!”
2、特(直或止)……耳,译为”只不过……罢了“
    如:止增笑耳。(蒲松龄《狼》)
        嗟夫,孟尝君特鸡鸣狗盗之雄耳。(《续孟尝君传》)
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         直不百步耳,是亦走也。(《寡人之于国也》)
         其为时止十有一月耳。(《五人墓碑记》)
3、惟……耳!可译为:“只是……罢了!”
4、一何……!可译为:“多么……啊!”
例:吏呼一何怒,妇啼一何苦
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四、表揣度
1、无乃……乎(欤)!可译为:“恐怕……吧!”
例: 远主备之,无乃不可乎?(《崤之战》)
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例:无乃后乎?(《勾践灭吴》)
无乃与仆私心刺谬乎?(《报任按书》)
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求,无乃尔是过与?(《季氏将我伐颛臾》)
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2、得无……乎?表测度语气,相当于现代汉语的"该不会(恐怕、莫不是、只怕是、莫非)……吧"。可译为:“该不是……吗?”
例: 成反复自念,得无教我猎虫耶?
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如:览物之情,得无异乎?(《岳阳楼记》)  日食饮得无衰乎?(《触龙说赵太后》)
3、……庶几……欤?可译为:“……或许……吧?”
例:寡人以为善,庶几息兵革。 译文:                                                                                                                                                        
   例:庶几可告慰先生也    译文:                                                                                                                                                    
五、表示选择
1、与其……孰若……?可译为:“与其……哪如……?”
例:与其坐而待亡,孰若起而拯之。
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2、……,抑……   译为“是……,还是……”或“……,还是(或者)……”
例:抑本其成败之迹,而皆自于人欤?《伶官传序》
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3、其……,其……也? 可译为:“是……呢,还是……呢?”
例:呜呼!其(难道)信然邪?其梦邪?其传之非其真邪?
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六、表示其他
1、所以……  译为:“……的原因”;“ ……的方法”;“用来……”;“ ……的依据”; “ ……的工具”; “ ……的作用” ……
2、有……者       可译为:“有个……的人”
3、然则……        可译为:“既然这样,那么……”
例:是进亦忧,退亦忧,然则何时而乐耶?——
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4、有所…… 译为:“有……的(人、物、事);无所…… 译为:没有……的(人、物、事)
例:死亦我所恶,所恶有甚于死者,故患有所不避也。《鱼我所欲也》
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例:今入关,财物无所取,妇女无所幸,此其志不在小。《鸿门宴》
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5、……之谓也;其……之谓也
表示总结性判断的固定结构。其中“之”标志宾语前置的结构助词;“谓”是动词,“说”的意思;“也”是表判断的语气助词。可译为“说的就是……啊”。 “大概说的就是……吧”
例:诗云:“他人有心,子忖度之。”——夫子之谓也。
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例:谚所谓“唇亡齿寒”者,其虞虢之谓也。
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如果“之谓”位于句中,宾语在“谓”的后边,这是另一种固定结构。可译为“……叫作……”、“……称作……”。
例:此之谓失其本心。(孟子《鱼我所欲也》)
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6、若……者   可译为:“好象……的样子”
7、无以……  ;有以……
这是两个意义相反的固定结构。它们用在谓语动词前,相当于助动词的作用。可分别译为“有用来……的……”、“没有……的……”。
   例:臣乃得有以报太子。(《荆轲刺秦王》)
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例:吾终当有以活汝。(《中山狼传》)
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例:军中无以为乐。(《鸿门宴》)
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例:故不积跬步,无以至千里;不积小流,无以成江海。——
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10、非……则……     可译为:“不是……就是”
11、"非……而……"连用,表判断,相当于现代汉语的"不是……而是"。
例:非字而画。(《促织》)
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12. "以……为"连用,表判断,相当于现代汉语的"认为……"、"把……当作"、"凭借(依靠)……作为"等。
例: 以天下之美,为尽在己。(《庄子•秋水》) 
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例: 而蔺相如徒以口舌为劳,而位居我上。(《廉颇蔺相如列传》)
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13. "非惟……抑亦"连用,表递进,相当于现代汉语"不只……而且"。
例:非惟天时,抑亦人谋也。(陈寿《隆中对》)
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22、(而)况……乎  译为“何况……呢”或“又何况……呢”
例:今以钟磬置水中,虽大风浪不能鸣也,而况石乎!
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